History and Government
Brazil is a Constitutional Presidential Federal Republic – model chosen on a plebiscite held in 1993. The government is divided into three equivalent powers: Executive, Legislative and Judicial.
The Executive Power is represented by one single person, the President of the Republic. The Legislative is the National Congress, which is also responsible for the supervision of the State, exercised by senators and state representatives which represent the member-states and the people, respectively. The Judicial Power is composed of many courts, the main ones being the Federal Supreme Court (STF) – formed by 11 ministers chosen by the President of the Republic and approved by the senate -, the High Court of Justice (STJ) and the Supreme Military Court (STM). The Executive and Legislative Powers are chosen by secret and direct vote from Brazilian citizens.
The current President of Brazil is Dilma Rousseff, elected in 2011 and reelected in 2014.
Even though Brazil became a Republic in 1889, the first direct vote for President took place in 1891 only, when Prudente de Morais was elected. From the 60’s on, the population’s right to choose its rulers was interrupted for the first and only time in the country by the Military Coup d’état. The prohibition lasted a little longer than 20 years. In 1984, a movement called “Diretas Já” gave the Brazilian citizens their right to direct and secret vote to choose the President of the Republic.